Anchor Fastener imageThis is generally referred to as heavy-duty Fastener as it is used to connect objects to concrete. Their design makes them suitable to be used with poles and also ensure they stay stable and secure.
There are various types of Anchor Fastener available some of them are:
- L-Shaped Anchor Fasteners
- Double End Rods with Plate
- Headed Anchor Bolts
- Swedge Bolts
- Anchor bolts are used to connect structural and non-structural elements to the concrete. The connection is made by an assembling of different components such as: anchor bolts (also named fasteners), steel plates, stiffeners. Anchor bolts transfer different types of load: tension forces and shear forces. A connection between structural elements can be represented by steel column attached to reinforced concrete foundation. Whereas, a common case of non-structural element attached to a structural one is represented by the connection between a facade system and a reinforced concrete wall
- Mechanical Expansion anchors
- Undercut anchors
- Bonded anchors
- Screw anchors
- Plastic anchors
- Tapcon screws
- Plastic anchors
- Powder-Actuated aNCHORS
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Modes of Failure in tension Anchors can fail in different way when loaded in tension:
- Steel failure: the weak part of the connection is represented by the rod. The failure corresponds to the tensile break-out of steel as in case of tensile testing.In this case, concrete base material might be undamaged.
- Pull-out: the anchor is pulled out from the drilled hole partially damaging the surrounding concrete. When the concrete is damaged the failure is also indicated as pull-through.
- Concrete cone: after reaching the load-bearing capacity a cone shape is formed. The failure is governed by crack growth in concrete. This kind of failure is typical in pull-out test.
- Splitting failure: failure is characterized by a splitting crack which divides the base material into two parts. This kind of failure occurs when the dimensions of the concrete component are limited or the anchor is installed close to an edge.
- Blow-out failure: failure is characterized by the lateral spalling of concrete in the proximity of the anchor’s head. This kind of failure occurs for anchors (prevalently cast-in-place) installed near the edge of the concrete element.
In design verification under ultimate limit state, codes prescribe to verify all the possible failure mechanisms.